ADAPTATION AND INNOVATION

Organization creativity and innovation are organizational processes that provoke continuing interest among managers and researchers alike. At the surface level, organizational creativity and innovation are viewed as processes by which individuals working together in a complex social system create a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure or work process. As such, they play a central role in the long term survival of organizations and are key processes that must be managed.
Creativity involves a special kind of problem solving. In organizational settings, attempts have been made to identi1r potentially creative people by observing their problem solving behaviour. Yet, individual creativity is a function of antecedent conditions, cognitive style and ability, i.e., divergent thinking, personality, relevant knowledge, motivation, social influences and group, unit and organizational factors. Adaptation means preference for structured situation, seeking answers to the problems, that are safe. In adaptation immediate high efficiency is the keynote. Adaptation generally generates a few well chosen and relevant solutions that they generally find sufficient but that sometimes fail to contain ideas needed to break the existing pattern completely. Adopters prefer well established structured situation. They are best at incorporating new data or events ito existing structures of policies. In a way adaptations are sound, conforming, safe, predictable, relevant, inflexible, wedded to the system and intolerant of ambiguity. As compared to adaptation, innovation seeks to redefine generally agreed problems, breaking previously perceived restraints, generating solutions aimed at doing things differently. In other words, innovation is the successful application of a new idea to the finn. The idea may be a new technology, a new product, or a new organizational or administrative process. The Innovation may be an imitation of a product, a person, or an idea used elsewhere, which becomes unique because it is placed within a new context.

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SENSITIVITY TRAINING

Sensitivity training laboratories were a cornerstone of early organization development efforts. Although they are used less frequently now as interventions, but they are still an important OD technique. T-groups are an excellent learning and change intervention, particularly for the personal growth and development of the individual.
A T-group is an unstructured, agendaless group session for about 10 to 12 members and a professional trainer” who acts as catalyst and facilitator for the group. The data for discussion are the data provided by the Interaction of the group members as they strive to create a viable society for themselves. Actions, reactions, interactions and the concomitant feelings accompanying all of these are the data for the group. The group typically meets for three days upto two weeks. Conceptual material relating to interpersonal relations, individual personality theory and group dynamics is a part of the program. But. the main learning vehicle is the group experience. Learnings derived from the T-group vary for different individuals, but they are usually described as learning to be more competent in interpersonal relationships, learning more about oneself as a person, learning how others react to one’s behaviour and learning about the dynamics of group formation and group norms and group growth.

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Organizational System design

Just in any other aspect of decision making, it is important to point to the most fundamental aspect of business management i.e. the individualization of decision making based on organizational needs, wants and ability. It is safe to assume that most business concepts and fundamentals are uniform and apply to virtually all businesses. However, any decision maker or stakeholder has to be aware that those fundamentals have to be tailored to particular organizations current standing, ability as well as organizational goals and organizational strategic vision.

This may lead to the conclusion that informational technology is no exception. Information systems and its respective tools that include software and hardware are simply tools that are used to enhance the organizational ability to become more effective and efficient. Hence those tools have to be tailored and customized in order to reap the benefits. In order to maximize the benefits, one has to assume that operators i.e. employees or decision makers have the greatest knowledge and expertise to use those systems. Equally the customization has to be done in a way that complements the end users ability to use those systems.

Ultimately, it is not far fetched to label information systems simply as just another tool that can not be effectively maximized in its usage, unless it is designed, tailored and customized to fit the goals as well as the ability of the end user to effective implement their respective usage.

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Human Resource Planning in Organization.

An organization in process to achieve the goals or objectives it must ensure that it has enough number of people who can perform to achieve the goals. An organization must ensure the efficiency of the people and capabilities of the people to complete the tasks at right time that will help the organization achieve its overall objectives. That is human resource planning translates the objectives and plans into number of people needed to meet those objectives. The purpose of human resource planning is to assess whether the organization is going in right way to achieve the goals. Human resource planning comprises assessing current human resources. Analyzing and reviewing overall objectives and business projections. Forecast of demand. Forecast of internal and external supply sources. Matching demand and supply.

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organizational systems effectiveness

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People in the organization can tilt either way toward growth or toward stagnation. The design of the system in which people work can significantly influence which way they go and how far. The more they tilt toward stagnation, the higher the probability of developing organization illness. And in general ,the more they orient themselves toward growth, the better for organizational health. Behavioural research scientists are of the opinion that organization can be made more humane and at the same time more effective. It is possible to design organizational systems where individual participants can give of themselves and not given themselves up. In spite of the fact that some basic conflicts between the individual and the organization , there can be new organizational structures ,heightened competence in interpersonal relation among the managers , and increased group effectiveness. On the other hand incompetent organizational structures create executive environments lacking in trust, openness, dynamism and results in ineffective problem solving ,poor decision making and organizational illness.

Human Resource Management
Organisational effectiveness is the central theme of organization theory. No management can think of a theory of organization that does not include the concept of effectiveness. Everyone-academicians and corporate people-unanimously agree to the significance of effectiveness in organization.
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Organisational effectiveness

Organisational effectiveness represents a desirable attribute in organization.
Effectiveness could be defined as the degree to which organization realizes its goals.
Organisational effectiveness is the extent to which an organization, given certain resources and means ,achieves its objectives without placing undue strain on its members .
Effectiveness is the ability of an organization to mobilize its centres of power for action-producing and adaptation.
Effectiveness of an organization can be seen in terms of survival of the organization.
According to silver and Sherman, Organisational effectiveness is the extent to which defind and finite resources can achieve its growth and profit without destroying its internal resources. It is how a company meets its minimization of stoppage between the input of resources and the optimized output .He further supports his viewpoint by an analogy that, there are parts of a ship which taken by themselves sink . The engine would plunge into the bottom of the sea and so would the propeller . The steel of the hull would sink. But when the parts of the ship are put together, they float. Thus organizational effectiveness is getting it together , to keep the enterprise afloat and competitive.
According to Houck levis Organisational effectiveness is the tool to which a goal that has been set for an operating task is attained in terms of quality and completion.
Warren. G. Bennils opines Organisational effectiveness is the system’s capacity to survive, adapt, maintain and grow, regardless of the particular function it performs.

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Organizational Behavior Analytics.

Organizational Behavior Analytics.

Analyzing the stages in the evolution of organizational structures and their specific implications to behavior in organizations are the focus of this unit. Every organization has certain objectives or goals which it strives to accomplish. In order to do so, people work together in groups .The activities of each of these individuals and groups are co-ordinated by authority-responsibility relationships. These are determined on the basis of the hierarchy of the jobs. This is what we mean by “organization”. Such clearly marked relationships help to ensure effective work performance. Some of the commonly used definitions of the term are given here, so as to draw a clearer picture of the term and its use. An organization is a group of individuals co-ordinated into different levels of authority and segments of specialization for the purpose of achieving the goals and objectives of the organization . The process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority, and establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in establishing of objectives. An organization is the formation of an effective machine, the management of an effective executive and the administration of an effective direction. Administration determines the goals, management strives towards it. Administrator determines the organization ; the management uses it. An organization is a machine of management in its achievement of the ends determined by its administration. An analysis of these definitions show that organizations are born out of a necessity for a clear, well defined system or structure, which people require for execution of their work responsibilities . It helps them to relate to each other , co-ordinate their activities , and achieve the organizational goals or objectives. It minimizes confusion, nurtures suitable work behavior , and maximizes effectiveness.

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